Introduction
Autoimmune diseases
Autoantibodies - Introduction
Autoantibodies - Determination
 
Autoantibodies
Rheumatoid Factor
Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)
Specific Antibodies
Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies
(ANCA)
Anti-phospholipid Antibodies
Anti-mitochondrial Antibodies (AMA)
Anti-endothelial Cell Antibodies (AECA)
Anti CCP antibodies
Antibodies against DNases
 
Quality Assurance
 
Reference ranges
 
Algorithm
ANA and incidence of diseases
Proposed stepwise diagnosis scheme
Positive Immunoflourescence -
Nucleoplasmic
Positive Immunoflourescence - Nucleolar
Positive Immunoflourescence -
Cytoplasmic
Type of autoimmune diseases
Conditions associated with antinuclear
antibodies (ANA)
 
Slide show
 
References
 
Collaborators
Reference ranges
 

Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

anti-Sm

negative

ELISA

anti-Sm/RNP

Units

negative

< 15

U/ml

equivocal

15-25

U/ml

positive

> 25

U/ml


Antibodies to SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La

anti-SS-A (Ro)


Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 8

U/ml

equivocal

8 – 10

U/ml

positive

> 10

U/ml


anti-SS-B (La)


Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 3

U/ml

equivocal

3 – 4

U/ml

positive

> 4

U/ml


Anti – SS-A/Ro
- Systemic Lupus Erythomatodes 30 – 50 % patients
- Primary Sjögren’s syndrome 60 –70% patients
- Secundary Sjögren’s syndrome up to 95 % patients


Anti – SS-B/La
- Systemic Lupus Erythomatodes 15 % patient
- Primary Sjögren’s syndrome 45 –60% patients
- Secundary Sjögren’s syndrome up to 87 % patients


Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

anti- anticetromere

anti-SCL 70

Units

negative

< 10

< 15

U/ml

equivocal

 

15-25

U/ml

positive

> 10

> 25

U/ml





Reference values:
Indirect immunoflourescence method.negative


Reference values:
Indirect immunoflourescence method.negative


anti ds-DNA


Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 40

U/ml

equivocal

40 – 60

U/ml

positive

> 60

U/ml


anti ss-DNA


Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 8

U/ml

equivocal

8 – 10

U/ml

positive

> 10

U/ml



 Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 25

U/ml

positive

> 25

U/ml



Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

0 - 20

U/ml

equivocal

21 – 30

U/ml

positive

> 30

U/ml



Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 5

U/ml

positive

> 5

U/ml



Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

negative

Low positive

Moderate positive

High positive

Units

IgG

< 20

20 –30

31 – 50

> 51

GPLU/ml

IgM

< 1.5

1.5 –2.5

2 – 9.9

> 10

MPL /ml

IgA

< 10

10 -20

21 – 30

> 31

arb U/ml


Indication

- suspected SLE
- prenatal pregnancy monitoring in patients with SLE
- recurrent abortions
- thromboembolic events of  undetermined origin
- evaluation of a prolonged APTT



Reference values
dependent on method

Immunofluorescence method.

negative

ELISA

 

 

Units

negative

< 10

U/ml

positive

> 10

U/ml



Reference values
dependent on method: negative




Reference values (ELISA)
dependent on method

< 20 EU

negative

20 – 39 EU
weak positive
40 - 59 EU
moderate positive

3 69 EU

strong positive



Reference values (ELISA)
dependent on method

 

negative