Home

Differential leucocyte count

Clinical significance

1) Physiologic variations
• basophils
• eosinophils

Eosinophil count is on a decrease in the morning until noon, whereafter the erythrocyte count rises to reach maximum between midnight and 3 a.m. Asthma patients have a reverse diurnal rhythm, with a maximal eosinophil count between 9 and 12 a.m. The individuals, who work at night, the diurnal rhythm for eosinophils is also reverse and is similar to that seen in asthma patients.
• lymphocytes
• neutrophils

During 24 hours, significant changes occur in the neutrophil count, probably due to physical activities, food and drink intake (diurnal rhythm), and external temperature variations. Strong emotions such as fear, anger, excitement, etc., may cause an immediate increase in the neutrophil count. Therefore, it is recommended that differential blood count be determined at the same time of the day while monitoring the course of disease in a particular patient.
• monocytes


2) Pathologic changes

Increased values
Increased basophils Increased eosinophils Increased lymphocytes Increased neutrophils Increased monocytes
• acquired hemolytic anemia (autoimmune),
• acute myelocytic leukemia,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• hereditary spherocytosis,
• mastocytosis,
• myelofibrosis,
• nephrotic syndrome (some cases),
• polycythemia rubra vera,
• acute renal failure,
• allergic alveolitis
• allergic purpura,
• allergy,
• ancylostomiasis,
• ascariasis,
• asthma,
• atopic dermatitis,
• cancer of testis,
• cerebral hemorrhage,
• cerebral tumor,
• chronic bronchitis,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
• gastritis,
• hypereosinophilic syndrome,
• idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis,
• Löffler’s endocarditis,
• malaria,
• malignant neoplasm of bone,
• mycosis fungoides ,
• myelofibrosis,
• nephrotic syndrome,
• pemphigus ,
• phlebitis and thrombophlebitis,
• polyarteritis nodose,
• simple goiter,
• strongyloidasis,
• toxocariasis,
• trichinosis
• trichuriasis,
• urticaria,
• viral pneumonia
• acute and subacute necrosis of the liver,
• chronic fatigue syndrome,
• cytomegalic inclusion disease,
• histoplasmosis,
• infectious mononucleosis,
• multiple myeloma,
• mumps.
• osteoporosis,
• otitis media,
• rubeolla,
• smallpox (variola vera),
• syphilis,
• typhus fever,
• viral pneumonia,
• Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia,
• whooping cough,
• abscess of lung,
• acute appendicitis,
• acute arthritis (pyogenic),
• acute cholecystitis,
• acute myelocytic leukemia ,
• acute pancreatitis,
• acute pyelonephritis,
• acute renal failure ,
• allergic purpura,
• amebiasis,
• arterial embolism and thrombosis,
• bacillary dysentery,
• bacterial endocarditis,
• bacterial meningitis,
• benign prostatic hypertrophy,
• carcinoma of the pancreas ,
• cholangitis,
• chronic bronchitis,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
• chronic pancreatitis
• colorectal cancer,
• diphtheria,
• effects of x-ray irradiation,
• gangrene,
• Guillain-Barre syndrome,
• Hodgkin’s disease,
• intracranial abscess,
• leptospirosis,
• liver abscess (pyogenic),
• meningcoccal meningitis,
• moniliasis,
• nephrotic syndrome,
• osteomyelitis,
• phlebitis and thrombophlebitis,
• polyneuritis,
• polyarteritis nodose,
• polycythemia rubra vera,
• rheumatoid arthritis,
• tetanus,
• thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP),
• thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura,
• trichinosis,
• acute lymphocytic leukemia,
• acute myelocytic leukemia ,
• agranulocytosis,
• bacterial endocarditis,
• benign prostatic hypertrophy,
• bladder carcinoma,
• brucellosis,
• cancer of colon,
• cancer of esophagus,
• cancer of liver,
• cancer of prostate,
• cancer of rectum,
• carcinoma of the pancreas ,
• cerebral tumor,
• chronic fatigue syndrome,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring’s disease),
• gastric cancer,
• Gaucher’s disease,
• herpes zoster infection,
• Hodgkin’s disease,
• infectious mononucleosis,
• leishmaniasis,
• malaria,
• miliary tuberculosis,
• monocytic leukemia,
• myelofibrosis,
• non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
• osteoarthritis,
• osteomyelitis,
• pulmonary tuberculosis,
• rheumatoid arthritis,
• septicemia,
• sickle cell disease,
• sideroblastic anemia,
• SLE,
• syphilis,
• ulcerative colitis,
• urticaria,
• viral hepatitis,
• vitamin B6 deficiency anemia,
• Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia



Decreased values
Decreased basophils Decreased eosinophils Decreased lymphocytes Decreased neutrophils Decreased monocytes
• anorexia nervosa,
• myelofibrosis
• adrenal cortical hyperfunction,
• anorexia nervosa,
• diabetic acidosis,
• epidemic typhus,
• malaria,
• trauma
• acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),
• acute appendicitis,
• acute poliomyelitis,
• agamaglobulinemia,
• agranulocytosis,
• anorexia nervosa,
• aplastic anemia,
• cancer of esophagus,
• celiac disease,
• cerebral tumor,
• chickenpox,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• colorectal cancer,
• diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent),
• Guillain-Barre syndrome,
• Hodgkin’s disease,
• influence,
• malignant melanoma of skin,
• measles,
• multiple sclerosis,
• myasthenia gravis,
• nephrotic syndrome,
• sarcoidosis,
• septicemia,
• SLE,
• tetanus,
• viral pneumonia,
• Whipple’s disease,
• yellow fever.
• acquired hemolytic anemia (autoimmune) ,
• acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
• acute myocarditis,
• adrenal cortical hypofunction,
• agranulocytosis,
• aplastic anemia,
• bacillary dysentery,
• brucellosis,
• chickenpox,
• congenital aplastic anemia,
• effects of X-ray irradiation,
• folic acid deficiency,
• hypersplenism,
• influence,
• leukemic reticuloendotheliosis,
• malaria,
• measles,
• monocytic leukemia,
• multiple myeloma,
• otitis media,
• paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria,
• septicemia,
• SLE,
• smallpox,
• tick-borne fever,
• typhus fever,
• viral pneumonia
• acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids).
• acute lymphocytic leukemia,
• anorexia nervosa,
• aplastic anemia,
• chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
• leukemic reticuloendotheliosis