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Sodium

Clinical significance

Pathologic changes in serum sodium concentration
A) Increased sodium concentration in:B) Decreased sodium concentration in:
• acute lymphocytic leukemia,
• acute myelocytic leukemia ,
• adrenal cortical hyperfunction,
• cholera,
• chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• chronic renal failure,
• congestive cardiac failure,
• diabetes insipidus
• diabetic acidosis,
• diarrhoea,
• hepatic failure
• non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
• peritonitis ,
• vomiting
• acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ,
• acute intermittent porphyria,
• acute myocardial infarction,
• acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis,
• acute renal failure ,
• adrenal cortical hypofunction,
• alcoholic cirrhosis,
• bacillary dysentery,
• bacterial meningitis,
• benign neoplasms of the brain and central nervous system,
• biliary cirrhosis,
• burn,
• carcinoma of the lungs,
• cerebral hemorrhage,
• cerebral tumor,
• chronic renal failure,
• congestive cardiac failure,
• diabetes mellitus,
• diabetic acidosis,
• diarrhoea,
• encephalomyelitis,
• essential hypertension,
• gastroenteritis and colitis,
• hyperlipoproteinemia type V,
• hypothyroidism,
• liver cirrhosis,
• malaria,
• proximal renal tubular acidosis,
• pulmonary tuberculosis,
• Reye’s syndrome,
• secondary malignant neoplasm of brain,
• subacute thyroiditis,
• tuberculous meningitis,
• typhus,
• ulcerative colitis,
• urethritis.