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Potassium

Clinical significance

Potassium values should always be interpreted after careful examination of the patient's clinical state.


Pathologic changes in serum potassium concentration

Increased potassium concentration in:Decreased potassium concentration in:
• acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ,
• adrenal cortical hypofunction,
• arthropod-borne hemorrhagic fever,
• carcinoid syndrome,
• chronic myelocytic leukemia,
• chronic renal failure,
• diabetes mellitus,
• diabetic acidosis,
• hyperparathyroidism,
• hyperthyroidism
• metabolic acidosis,
• polycythemia rubra vera,
• pre-eclampsia,
• thermal shock
• acute intermittent porphyria,
• acute myelocytic leukemia ,
• acute renal failure ,
• adrenal cortical hyperfunction,
• alcoholic cirrhosis,
• carcinoma of the pancreas ,
• cholera,
• congestive cardiac failure,
• diabetes mellitus,
• diarrhoea,
• familial periodic paralysis
• folic acid deficiency,
• Gitelman’s syndrome,
• hepatolenticular degeneration,
• hyperaldosteronism,
• hypokalemia,
• liver cirrhosis (patients with edema and ascites)
• malignant hypertension,
• metabolic alkalosis,
• peptic ulcer,
• pernicious anemia,
• traume,
• ulcerative colitis,
• vomiting,
• Whipple’s disease,
• Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.